3. For example, Kaiser
H. M., Riha S., Wilks D., Rossiter D., Sampath R., 1993: A farm-level
analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming. American
Journal of Agricultural Economics, 75: 387-398; Schneider
S.H., 1996c: The future of climate: Potential for interaction and surprises.
E Downing (ed.) Climate Change and World Food Security. Springer-Verlag,
Heidelberg, NATO ASI Series 137: 77-113, 1996; Morgan
G., Dowlatabadi H., 1996: Learning from integrated assessment of climate
change. Climatic Change 34(3-4), 337-68; Kolstad
C. D., Kelly, D. L., Mitchell G., 1999: Adjustment costs from environmental
change induced by incomplete information and learning. Department of Economics,
UCSB working paper.
4. For example,
Academy of Sciences, 1991: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming:
Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Panel on Policy Implications
of Greenhouse Warming, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy.
Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
6. For example,
et al., 1994; Mendelsohn
R., Nordhaus W., Shaw D., 1996: Climate impacts on aggregate farm
value: Accounting for adaptation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
80, 55-66; Mendelsohn
R., Morrison W., Schlesinger M., Andronova N., 2000: Country-specific
market impacts of climate change. Climatic Change, 45(3-4): 553-569.
7. For example, as recommended
T.R, Parry M. L., Harasawa H., Nishioka S., 1994: IPCC Technical Guidelines
for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations. Summary for
Policy Makers and a Technical Summary.
Department of Geography, University College London, UK and the Center
for Global environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies,
Japan. pp 59.
8. For example,
as advocated by Yohe,
G.W., 1991: Uncertainty, Climate Change, and the Economic Value of
Information: An Economic Methodology for Evaluating the Timing and Relative
Efficacy of Alternative Response to Climate Change with Application to Protecting
Developed Property from Greenhouse induced Sea Level Rise. Policy Science,
24(3): 245 269; Morgan
and Dowlatabadi, 1996; Schneider,
9. For example, Titus
and Narayanan, 1996, combine climate models with expert subjective opinion
to derive a statistical distribution for future sea level rise, or Morgan
and Dowlatabadi, 1996, present a probability distribution comparing
CO2 emission abatement costs to averted climate damages.
11. It should be noted
that the EU also adopted a maximum of 550 PPM CO2 equivalent target.
It can be seen from the IPCC
stabilization scenarios that the concentration target and the temperature
targets are compatible, but a 550-PPM concentration would require that the climate
sensitivity is low. Thus, the EU negotiating positions and their energy policies
need to be cognizant of the possibility that a more stringent concentration
target than 550 PPM may be required. The Swedish government recently stated
that it supports a global 550 PPM CO2 equivalent target (which is
roughly equivalent to a 450 PPM CO2 target), and that it will work
in favor of such a target.
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