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Stanford University
  Advocacy of Value Positions

Table Advocacy/Popularization “Rules” (source: Schneider 2003, "Mediarology", this website).

  • Make your values and biases conscious — use the relevant scientific/technical communities to help you overcome your own dogmatism or denial;
  • Make your values and biases explicit and separate them from your scientific priors on probabilities and consequences;
  • Struggle not to let personal value positions distort your subjective priors on the probabilities of various outcomes or “facts”;
  • Defend value positions separately from assessments of probabilities and consequences;
  • Encourage popularizers who follow responsible practices, and censure those who are unclear, obscure or biased, which harms efforts to educate and elucidate.

Copyright 2011, Stephen H. Schneider, Stanford University